Antihelminthic activity of crude saponins and tannins isolated from Tetradenia riparia leaf extracts

Marble Nasasira, Genny Dominguez Montero, Miriela Betancourt Valladares

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Introduction: Helminth infections affect developing countries, particularly the child population. The medicinal worth of plants lies in their active principles, which have a physiological effect on the human body. Reports have been issued of the anthelmintic activity of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd [Lamiaceae], and its phytochemical study has revealed the presence of several metabolites which could be responsible for its pharmacological effect.
Objective: Evaluate the anthelmintic activity of saponins and tannins isolated from extracts of T. riparia leaves.
Method: 14.07 % aqueous extract and 23.0 % alcoholic extract were obtained from T. riparia dry leaves. The saponins were isolated from the aqueous extract and the tannins from the alcoholic extract after confirming their presence by foam formation for saponins and the ferric chloride test for tannins. Sixty Ascaris suum worms were divided into ten groups: eight experimental and two controls (negative and positive). The experimental groups were exposed to various extract concentrations (40 mg/ml, 80 mg/ml and 120 mg/ml) prepared with Goodwin's physiological solution, which was also used as negative control. The positive control was albendazole 80 mg/ml. The motility test was used to determine anthelmintic activity. The chi-square test was applied, and p values below 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Saponins and tannins were detected at high and moderate concentrations in aqueous and alcoholic T. riparia leaf extracts, respectively. Crude metabolites displayed anthelmintic activity depending on the dose. Saponins and tannins displayed anthelmintic activity, and no significant differences were found between the effect of the two metabolites isolated or between them and the positive control.
Conclusions: The saponins and tannins isolated from T. riparia leaves may be responsible for the anthelmintic effect of the plant. Anthelmintic activity is similar in saponins, tannins and albendazole.

Key words: anthelmintic activity, ascaricidal activity, Tetradenia riparia, saponins, tannins, motility.