Antiplatelet but not anticoagulant activity of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extracts

Roberto Ramírez Beltrán, Vivian García Mir, Dulce María Armenteros Herrera, Ana María Quintela Pena, Milagros Garcia Mesa

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Introduction: morinda citrifolia L (Noni) is a medicinal plant species that has gained popularity among Cuban population, suggesting the need to characterize the pharmacological activities of noni preparations developed in Cuba.
Objective: assessing the effects of Noni leaf and fruit extracts on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, as well as the possible influence of plant age, leaf maturity and extract total phenol and flavonoid contents on it.
Methods: green and yellow leaves and light yellow fruits were collected from three- and six- year old Noni trees. Leaf (30 g/100 mL w/v) and fruit (100 g/100 mL w/v) extracts were prepared by maceration in 50 % alcohol and water respectively. The concentrations of total soluble solids (TSS), phenolic compounds (PHEN) and flavonoids expressed as quercetin (FLV) in the extracts were determined. The in vitro effects of leaf (0,4 and 0,8 mg TSS/mL) and fruit (0,6 and 1,2 mg TSS/mL) extracts on ADP-induced platelet aggregation (PA), prothrombin time (PT) and partial activated thromboplastine time (PATT) in human plasma was determined. Furthermore, the ex vivo effects of a leaf extract (42 and 378 mg TSS / kg i.p. and 630 mg/kg p.o.) on these variables of rat plasma were assessed.
Results: fruit extracts showed higher TSS, but lower PHE and FLV values than leaf extracts. Leaf but not fruit extracts inhibited ADP-induced PA that was independent on plant age and leaf maturity. A significant reduction of PA was ex vivo induced by a leaf extract in rats. TP and PATT were not modified during in vivo or ex vivo experiments.
Conclusion: noni leaf hydro-alcohol extracts developed in Cuba have antiplatelet but not anticoagulant effect.